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OPINION
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-17  

The cause of vasomotor symptoms: Resonance phenomena in the vascular bed


Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Miyagi, Japan

Date of Submission30-Oct-2021
Date of Decision03-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance10-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication2-May-2022

Correspondence Address:
Keiko Uohashi
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo, Miyagi 985-8537
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmh.jmh_194_21

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   Abstract 


This paper describes the probable cause of vasomotor symptoms during climacterics and before menstruation/ovulation. We propose that sex hormones imbalance changes the elasticity, resonance frequencies, and resonance peaks of vascular beds primarily in the uterus/intestines. It is also explained that vasomotor symptoms occur in the locations which resonate blood flow from the uterus/intestines for the above reason.

Keywords: Vasomotor symptom, menopausal symptom, premenstrual symptom


How to cite this article:
Uohashi K. The cause of vasomotor symptoms: Resonance phenomena in the vascular bed. J Mid-life Health 2022;13:15-7

How to cite this URL:
Uohashi K. The cause of vasomotor symptoms: Resonance phenomena in the vascular bed. J Mid-life Health [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 24];13:15-7. Available from: https://www.jmidlifehealth.org/text.asp?2022/13/1/15/344566




   Introduction Top


This paper describes the probable cause of vasomotor symptoms during climacterics and before menstruation/ovulation.


   The Probable Cause of Vasomotor Symptoms Top


We proposed the concept of resonance phenomena in the vascular bed as a probable cause of vasomotor symptoms in the Japan Society for Menopause and Women's Health, JMWH2019, and in the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, SICE2020.


   Concept Top


Variations in sex hormone balance alter the compliance (inverse of elasticity, accumulation effect, C) and inertance (inertia, pump effect, L) of the vascular bed generally, and primarily in the uterus or intestines. The resonant frequency of blood flow leads to hot flashes, cold feelings, sleeplessness, sweating, and pain appearing in organs with an amplified blood flow. The resonant frequency determines the location of the complaint, and the amplification factor determines the degree of the complaint, which differs from the climacteric index.[1]

The resonance phenomena of the vascular system are based on the principle of physics and have been studied using electric circuit analogs.[2],[3],[4] However, a lower frequency than the cardiac frequency and time transition of the compliance/inertance have not been investigated in detail.

In particular, we focus on digestive blood flow, which changes significantly and is difficult for patients to notice.[5],[6] For blood flow, short-term or long-term changes correspond to high or low frequency, respectively, if changes are not periodic.

During climacterics and before menstruation/ovulation, if the elasticity is relatively lower than the inertance in the uterine vascular bed, vasomotor symptoms are presumed to appear due to an increase in the amplification factor. Since estrogen thickens the endometrium and progesterone proliferates capillaries, symptoms appear when the estrogen level is relatively low. In the case of a person without a uterus, symptoms are presumed to appear due to the intestinal vascular bed, in which capillaries are well-developed, and the endothelium is moderately hard.

Some patients have symptoms, while others do not, even if they have the same estrogen level.[7],[8] This fact is explained by differences in the compliance/inertance of the vascular bed in the uterus/intestines.

This concept is obtained from a literature survey and a case study and applies to vasomotor symptoms.


   Symptoms to Which This Concept is Applied Top


Adolescents tend to feel cold rather than hot. Approaching climacterics, more people feel hot flashes, sweating, and pain in tendons/muscle ends. The cause seems to be that the elasticity of the uterine/intestinal vascular bed decreases, and the location of symptoms changes to one with a lower elastic vascular bed.

Dizziness often occurs when there is a short term increased blood inflow to the digestive tract after a heavy meal. When the short-term high blood inflow of the digestive tract is amplified to a greater degree, the muscles feel cold. Given that the blood outflow of the digestive organ takes a longer time than inflow, patients feel hot flashes when lower-frequency flow, that is, longer-term flow, is amplified. If the longer-term blood outflow of the digestive system is amplified, the blood flow at the muscle ends is amplified. Then, patients feel warmth for a longer time, sweating, muscle end pain, and sleeplessness due to the amplified blood flow around the eyes.

An association between menopausal insomnia and hot flashes has been reported.[9] Conversely, insomniac young people often feel cold or have no cold/hot sensations.[10] Blood flow around the eyes directly affects insomnia.

The endometrium of older women is atrophied and stiff. During atrophy, the elasticity of the endometrium decreases temporarily, and menopausal symptoms are presumed to appear.

Although estrogen replacement therapy reduces sweating and insomnia, it often increases cold sensation. This is because the resonant frequency of the uterus/intestines increases and the blood flow of more rigid tissues is amplified.

The exact mechanism applies to cancer treatments that decrease or increase serum levels of sex hormones.


   Discussion Top


It is desirable to investigate the mechanism of vasomotor function, which is not limited to the autonomic nervous system and includes nonmorbid conditions. To solve the following problems, we should develop techniques for sequentially measuring the blood flow of each location over several hours or days.

Is hyperhidrosis caused by the decreased resonant frequency of the intestines and increased blood flow due to tension overlap? Is sweating by exercise a resonance phenomenon for long-term blood flow generated by muscles?

Do sleepiness, bleariness (“Kasumi” in Japanese), and blurring (“boyake”) occur in edemas due to slowly increased blood flow around the eyelids? We should study the influence of facial blood flow on sleep and affective symptoms.

Dizziness and headaches were experienced in various age groups. Do resonant frequencies of the uterus/intestines change the kinds of dizziness and locations of headaches (e.g., the whole, temples, the coronal, and around the eyeballs)?

If cold sensations occurred due to decreased blood flow in high-thermogenesis tissues, would the correlation between cold senses and basic energy metabolism be below? Is the cause of paradoxical undressing greatly amplified blood flow in the digestive organs?

Do palpitations occur due to the short-term high blood inflow to the heart?

Are premenstrual/climacteric irritability and some affective symptoms caused by itches of muscle ends in the head, face, toes, anus, and so on? Are their sensations of hunger when the stomach moves through a lot of blood flow?

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Uohashi K. Mechanism of vasomotor symptoms based on frequency responses and ramp responses of blood flow. In: Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference 2020. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Tokyo, Japan; 2020. p. 1707-12.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Peng G, Guo J, Yin Y. Self-similar functional circuit models of arteries and deterministic fractal operators: Theoretical revelation for biomimetic materials. Int J Mol Sci 2021;22:12897.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Korürek M, Yıldız M, Yüksel A. Simulation of normal cardiovascular system and severe aortic stenosis using equivalent electronic model. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2010;10:471-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hassani K, Navidbakhsh M, Rostami M. Modeling of the aorta artery aneurysms and renal artery stenosis using cardiovascular electronic system. Biomed Eng Online 2007;6:22.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Someya N, Endo MY, Fukuba Y, Hayashi N. Blood flow responses in celiac and superior mesenteric arteries in the initial phase of digestion. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008;294:R1790-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Rao SS, Kavelock R, Beaty J, Ackerson K, Stumbo P. Effects of fat and carbohydrate meals on colonic motor response. Gut 2000;46:205-11.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sharman Moser S, Chodick G, Bar-On S, Shalev V. Healthcare utilization and prevalence of symptoms in women with menopause: A real-world analysis. Int J Womens Health 2020;12:445-54.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Davis SR. The Kupperman Index undressed. Maturitas 2019;126:90-1.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Baker FC, Willoughby AR, Sassoon SA, Colrain IM, de Zambotti M. Insomnia in women approaching menopause: Beyond perception. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2015;60:96-104.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Buddhabunyakan N, Kaewrudee S, Chongsomchai C, Soontrapa S, Somboonporn W, Sothornwit J. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) among high school students. Int J Womens Health 2017;9:501-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

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